Euro-Climhist – Ways to Weather Hindcasting


Historical climatology Evaluation of written and pictorial documents on weather and climate history using climatological and (environmental) historical methods
Hydroclimatic data Information about the climate that is related to water or hydrological phenomena (e.g. the water level of lakes or rivers)
Instrumental measurement series Data on temperature, precipitation, air pressure, wind force or water height recorded with contemporary measuring instruments
Little Ice Age Epoch from around 1300 to 1850, in which average temperatures in Europe - and worldwide, albeit with a time lag - were significantly lower than in the centuries before and after; caused by phases of lower solar activity and severe volcanic eruptions; advance of many glaciers in the Alps
Pfister indices (see: Temperature and precipitation indices)

a) Temperature index, divided into seven classes:

  • -3: extremely cold
  • -2: very cold
  • -1: cold
  • 0: no obvious positive or negative trend
  • +1: warm
  • +2: very warm
  • +3: extremely warm

b) Precipitation index, divided into seven classes:

  • -3: extremely dry
  • -2: very dry
  • -1: dry
  • 0: no obvious positive or negative trend
  • +1: humid
  • +2: very humid
Phenological data Data that depend on weather or climate-specific phenomena (e.g. developmental stages of plants, the duration of snow cover or the icing of rivers and lakes)
Proxy data Indirect indications of seasonal or monthly weather conditions (e.g. date, quantity and quality of the grain or grape harvest)
Serial weather data Observed variables that can be retrieved in the form of long series (e.g. monthly mean temperatures for a longer series of years)
Temperature and precipitation indices (see: Pfister indices) Monthly or seasonal classifications on a scale from -3 (extremely cold) to +3 (extremely hot) or -3 (extremely dry) to +3 (extremely humid)