Long series

The following data are obtained in the form of long series:

  • Monthly weather reports for 1764-1790 and 1820-1889 as overview information (Series 1): MeteoSwiss and its predecessor organisations published monthly weather reports in print from 1861 to 1999. They were digitized and included in Euro-Climhist up to 1889. Since 2000 they are available on the MeteoSwiss website. Descriptive reports are missing between 1878 and 1881, because just numerical measurements were published, even in the press, which is due to a dogmatic faith in bare numbers at that time. Preceding regional monthly weather reports from private individuals are prevailed for the periods 1764 to 1790 and 1820 to 1860.
  • Long series of the number of monthly precipitation days (Series 2-7): precipitation sums for Zurich-Winterthur 1684-1738, 1864-2011; Basel 1755-1804, 1826-2011; Geneva 1768-2011; Bern 1800-1827, 1864-2011.
  • Long series of monthly precipitation sum (Series 8-10): Bern from 1760; Geneva from 1778 (not homogenised); Zurich 1708-1712, 1717-1731, 1740-1746, 1750-1754, 1836-1852, 1858-2011. Values in mm.
  • Long series of measured mean temperature (Series 11-13): Neuchâtel-Geneva from 1753, Basel from 1755, Gr. St. Bernhard pass from 1819 to 1960. Values in degrees centigrade.
  • Date of the grape harvest in the Mittelland 1501-2011 (Series 14): This date is mainly related to the temperatures from April to July. Dating in “day of year” style [e.g. day 244 = 1 September] (series according to Wetter, Pfister 2013).
  • Date of the rye harvest in the 1501-1970 (Series 15): This date is mainly related to the temperatures from March to July. Dating in “day of year” style (series according to Wetter, Pfister 2011).
  • Date of full bloom of cherry trees in the Mittelland 1721-2015 (Series 16): This date is mainly related to the temperatures in March and April. Dating in “day of year” style (series according to Rutishauser, Studer 2007).
  • Date of the opening of the leaves and the beginning of bloom of the chestnut tree 1808-2012 (Series 17): This date is mainly related to the temperatures in March and April. The opening of the leaves in Geneva is distorted because of the the massive warming in the city. Dating in “day of year” style (series according to Stoller, Beer 1994 and the website “Marronnier officiel”).
  • Daily weather observations 1545-1576, 1684-1863 (Series 18-24): Systematic observations on sky, precipitation, temperature conditions, wind direction and force (partly not systematic and some gaps before 1755).
  • Grain (spelt) prices in Zurich 1540-1877 (Series 25): Grain prices depend from various factors. The volume of the grain harvest is only one of them and is mostly weather related. Values in grams of silver per kilogram of grain (series according to Studer 2015).
  • Ice coverage of small and mid-sized lakes 1901-2006 (Series 26): This proxy is mainly related to the temperatures of the preceding weeks in late fall and winter. Dating in “day of year” style (series according to Hendricks-Franssen, Scherrer 2008).
  • Volume of grape harvests in the Mittelland 1529-1825 (Series 27): This proxy is mainly related to the temperatures in June and July. Values refer to the deviation from the trend in percent (series according to Pfister 1981).
  • Floodings of Lago Maggiore (Series 28): Dating in “day of year” style.
  • Pfister temperature indices (provisional data synthesis) (Series 29): Estimated range of the monthly mean temperature.
  • Pfister precipitation indices (provisional data synthesis) (Series 30): Estimated range of the monthly mean precipitation.
  • Date of ice break-up of Lej da San Murezzan 1832-2015 (Series 31): Dating in “day of year” style (series according to Livingstone 2000).
  • Annual tree-ring width from the Lötschental valley 755-2004 (Series 32): Those results partly depend from the temperatures between June and August. Values in mm (series according to Büntgen et al. 2006).
  • Annual tree-ring density from the Lötschental valley 755-2004 (Series 33): Those results partly depend from the temperatures between June and September. Values in g/cm3 (series according to Büntgen et al. 2006).
  • Quasi-daily observations from Fischingen (TG) 1616-1651 (Series 34): This observation series is only preserved for single periods of the year and has larger gaps.

 

Outlook on upcoming series:

  • Further descriptions of meteorological impacts and natural hazards (storms, hail, thunderstorms, floods), of climatological loss-causing events (heat, frost, wetness, drought, aridity, snow cover), and of hydrological, nivological and geo-morphologcial risks (high water, avalanches, landslides etc.), in particular for the period before 1863.
  • Further descriptions of the bloom and ripening of (cultivated) plants: Besides numerous single observations for years with extreme weather there are also shorter series on specific plants in singular regions of Switzerland available, e.g. on the snowdrop and the bloom of vines in Hallau (SH) 1882-1995.
  • Qualitative descriptions of the sugar content of grapes.
  • Descriptions of the snow cover: Long series of snow cover descriptions from 1684 onwards, systematic observations of snowfall in summer in the mountains (2000 m and below) and of the size of Alpine glaciers are preserved from different Swiss regions.
  • Descriptions of weather ceremonies (processions, prayers).
  • Additional data about the size and quality of grain, grape, hay and fruit harvests, and about grain and food prices.
  • Socio-political data: Hunger and feed crises, and a wide range of individual and governmental actions.